Evolution of Marine Symbiosis--A Simple Cost-Benefit Model

Roughgarden, Jonathan. “Evolution of Marine Symbiosis‐‐A Simple Cost‐Benefit Model.” Ecology 56, no. 5 (1975): 1201-1208.

A simple cost—benefit analysis of symbiosis from the guest’s point of view is developed for (1) the conditions under which symbiosis should form, (2) the extent to which the association should be facultative or obligatory for the guest, (3) the conditions for the evolution of mutualistic activity by the guest, and (4) the optimum amount of mutualistic activity by the guest. Some predictions are that: rate species and species with short life—spans in a taxon of potential hosts should have fewer coevolved parasites; facultative parasites on unpalatable or well—protected hosts should be more deleterious to their hosts than those on comparatively vulnerable hosts; and mutualism should only evolve in hosts of intermediate survival ability. The use of the theory is illustrated with data on the damselfish—sea—anemone associations.

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