A famous and venerated model. Deriving from Tierra.


The MODES Toolbox: Measurements of Open-Ended Dynamics in Evolving Systems

Avida: Evolution experiments with self-replicating computer programs

Lenski RE, Ofria C, Collier TC Adami C (1999) Genome complexity, robustness and genetic interactions in digital organisms. Nature 400:661–664.

Lenski RE, Ofria C, Pennock RT, Adami C (2003) The evolutionary origin of complex features. Nature 423:129–144.

Chow SS, Wilke CO, Ofria C, Lenski RE, Adami C (2004) Adaptive radiation from resource competition in digital organisms. Science 305:84–86.

Wilke CO, Wang JL, Ofria C, Lenski RE, Adami C (2001) Evolution of digital organisms at high mutation rates leads to survival of the flattest. Nature 412:331–333.

Source code:

Sourceforge Avida repo
Github Avida repo
AvidaED: Javascript web implementation